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In many parts of the world, you don’t have to look very far to find a lake.

According to satellite data, there are roughly 100 million lakes larger than one hectare (2.47 acres) to be found globally. The largest lakes, which rival the size of entire nations, are more of a rarity.

One might expect the world’s largest lakes to be very alike, but from depth to saline content, their properties can be quite different. As well, the ranking of the world’s largest lakes is far from static, as human activity can turn a massive body of water into a desert within a single generation.

Today’s graphic – created using the fantastic online tool, Slap It On A Map! – uses the Great Lakes region as a point of comparison for the largest 25 lakes, by area. This is particularly useful in comparing the scale of lakes that are located in disparate parts of the globe.

The Greatest Lakes

The largest lake in the world by a long shot is the Caspian Sea – a name that hints at a past when it was contiguous with the ocean around 11 million years ago. This massive saline lake, which is nearly the same size as Japan, borders five countries: Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, and Iran. An estimated 48 billion barrels of oil lay beneath the surface of the basin.

The five Great Lakes, which run along the Canada–U.S. border, form one of the largest collections of fresh water on Earth. This interconnected series of lakes represents around 20% of the world’s fresh water and the region supports over 100 million people, roughly equal to one-third of the Canada–U.S. population.

Amazingly, a single lake holds as much fresh water as all the Great Lakes combined – Lake Baikal. This rift lake in Siberia has a maximum depth of 5,371ft (1,637m). For comparison, the largest of the Great Lakes (Lake Superior) is only 25% as deep, with a maximum depth of 1,333ft (406m). Lake Baikal is unique in a number of other ways too. It is the world’s oldest, coldest lake, and around 80% of its animal species are endemic (not found anywhere else).

Here’s a full run-down of the top 25 lakes by area:

Rank Lake Name Surface Area Type Countries on shoreline
1 Caspian Sea 143,000 sq mi
(371,000km²)
Saline 🇰🇿 Kazakhstan
🇷🇺 Russia
🇹🇲 Turkmenistan
🇦🇿 Azerbaijan
🇮🇷 Iran
2 Superior 31,700 sq mi
(82,100km²)
Freshwater 🇨🇦 Canada
🇺🇸 U.S.
3 Victoria 26,590 sq mi
(68,870km²)
Freshwater 🇺🇬 Uganda
🇰🇪 Kenya
🇹🇿 Tanzania
4 Huron 23,000 sq mi
(59,600km²)
Freshwater 🇨🇦 Canada
🇺🇸 U.S.
5 Michigan 22,000 sq mi
(58,000km²)
Freshwater 🇺🇸 U.S.
6 Tanganyika 12,600 sq mi
(32,600km²)
Freshwater 🇧🇮 Burundi
🇹🇿 Tanzania
🇿🇲 Zambia
🇨🇩 D.R.C.
7 Baikal 12,200 sq mi
(31,500km²)
Freshwater 🇷🇺 Russia
8 Great Bear Lake 12,000 sq mi
(31,000km²)
Freshwater 🇨🇦 Canada
9 Malawi 11,400 sq mi
(29,500km²)
Freshwater 🇲🇼 Malawi
🇲🇿 Mozambique
🇹🇿 Tanzania
10 Great Slave Lake 10,000 sq mi
(27,000km²)
Freshwater 🇨🇦 Canada
11 Erie 9,900 sq mi
(25,700km²)
Freshwater 🇨🇦 Canada
🇺🇸 U.S.
12 Winnipeg 9,465 sq mi
(24,514km²)
Freshwater 🇨🇦 Canada
13 Ontario 7,320 sq mi
(18,960km²)
Freshwater 🇨🇦 Canada
🇺🇸 U.S.
14 Ladoga 7,000 sq mi
(18,130km²)
Freshwater 🇷🇺 Russia
15 Balkhash 6,300 sq mi
(16,400km²)
Saline 🇰🇿 Kazakhstan
16 Vostok 4,800 sq mi
(12,500km²)
Freshwater 🇦🇶 Antarctica
17 Onega 3,700 sq mi
(9,700km²)
Freshwater 🇷🇺 Russia
18 Titicaca 3,232 sq mi
(8,372km²)
Freshwater 🇧🇴 Bolivia
🇵🇪 Peru
19 Nicaragua 3,191 sq mi
(8,264km²)
Freshwater 🇳🇮 Nicaragua
20 Athabasca 3,030 sq mi
(7,850km²)
Freshwater 🇨🇦 Canada
21 Taymyr 2,700 sq mi
(6,990km²)
Freshwater 🇷🇺 Russia
22 Turkana 2,473 sq mi
(6,405km²)
Saline 🇰🇪 Kenya
🇪🇹 Ethiopia
23 Reindeer Lake 2,440 sq mi
(6,330km²)
Freshwater 🇨🇦 Canada
24 Issyk-Kul 2,400 sq mi
(6,200km²)
Saline 🇰🇬 Kyrgyzstan
25 Urmia 2,317 sq mi
(6,001km²)
Saline 🇮🇷 Iran

Shrinking out of the rankings

Not far from the world’s largest lake, straddling the border between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, lay the sand dunes of the Aralkum Desert. In the not so distant past, this harsh environment was actually the bed of one of the largest lakes in the world – the Aral Sea.

Aral Sea receding 1960 2020

For reasons both climatic and anthropogenic, the Aral Sea began receding in the 1960s. This dramatic change in surface area took the Aral Sea from the fourth largest lake on Earth to not even ranking in the top 50. Researchers note that the size of the lake has fluctuated a lot over history, but through the lens of modern history these recent changes happened rapidly, leaving local economies devastated and former shoreside towns landlocked.

Lake Chad, in Saharan Africa, and Lake Urmia, in Iran, both face similar challenges, shrinking dramatically in recent decades.

How we work to reverse damage and avoid ecosystem collapse in vulnerable lakes will have a big influence on how the top 25 list may look in future years.